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Indlela yezithako zokuhlola umlilo

2021/12/24

Indlela yokuhlanganisa ye-assay kufanele inqunywe ngokuya ngohlobo lwesampula, futhi inani lama-reagents ahlukahlukene angeziwe kufanele libalwe ngokuya ngebanga elidingekayo le-silicic acidity.Inqubo yokusebenza iwukugcwalisa ifomu, bese kukalwa ama-reagents. kanye namasampula ngokulandelayo, uwafake ku-crucible bese uvuselela ama-reagents namasampuli nge-spoon eshukumisayo, futhi ngobumnene unyakazise i-crucible ukuze wenze izinhlayiya ezincane ezinamathele odongeni lwangaphakathi lwe-crucible.

Uma iqukethe isulfure, faka izipikili zensimbi ezidingekayo bese wengeza ungqimba lwe-ejenti yokumboza. Lapho izinga lokushisa lomlilo kagesi likhuphuka lifika ku-800 ° C, i-crucible ngezinto zokwakha ifakwa esithandweni, futhi izinga lokushisa lomlilo likhuphukela ku-1150 ° C phakathi kwamahora angu-1 kuya kwangu-1.5, futhi izinga lokushisa lomlilo ligcinwa imizuzu engu-10.

Ngenxa yezinhlobo ezahlukene ze-ore, indlela yokuhlola izithako zegolide nayo ihlukile. Ngokusho kohlobo lwe-ore kanye nezithako, kunezindlela ezintathu zezithako endleleni yokuncibilika kwe-crucible: indlela kafulawa, indlela ye-sodium nitrate-coke noma indlela ye-iron nail, indlela ye-saltpeter.


1. Indlela kafulawa iyindlela esetshenziswa kakhulu yesithako. Uma isampula ngokwalo ingenawo noma amandla okunciphisa aphansi kakhulu, ufulawa udinga ukungezwa njenge-ejenti yokunciphisa. Le ndlela inezinzuzo eziningi. Ingakwazi ukulawula usayizi wenkinobho yokuhola. Inohlu olubanzi lwamaminerali nezinto ezisetshenziswayo, futhi ifanele i-silicate ore, i-carbonate ore ne-oxide ore. Insimbi egazingiwe ngemva kokuba i-sulfide ore yosiwe ukuze kukhishwe isulfure ingasetshenziswa futhi kule ndlela.

Izidingo zokuqoqwa kwamasampula e-silicate-based ore yilezi:

(1) I-asilic acid ye-slag ingu-1.5-20;

(2) Kala 30-50g wesampula;

(3) Engeza i-sodium carbonate njengesamba sesampula;

(4) Inani le-borax elingeziwe liphindwe izikhathi ezingu-0.2 kuya ku-0.3 inani lesampula;

(5) Isilinganiso se-lead oxide akufanele sibe ngaphansi kuka-30g wesisindo senkinobho yokuhola.

(6) Inani likafulawa kufanele lilingane no-30-(usayizi wesampula × amandla okunciphisa isampula) /12.

I-oxide ore ne-carbonate angamaminerali ane-alkaline, futhi indlela yawo yokuhlanganisa ifana ngokuyisisekelo naleyo yamasampula e-silicate. Umehluko ukuthi imikhiqizo ngemva kokuncibilika ngokuvamile i-alkaline izinto ezifana ne-CaO, i-MgO, i-FeO, ngakho-ke inani elikhulu le-SiO2 kufanele lengezwe Nokho, izinga lokushisa elincibilikayo le-Fe SiO2, i-MgSiO2, ne-CaSiO2 liphakeme kakhulu. Inani le-PbO kufanele lenyuswe ezithakweni zokwandisa ukwakheka kwe-PbSiO2 ku-slag nokunciphisa izinga lokushisa elincibilikayo.


2. Indlela ye-iron nail (indlela ye-sodium nitrate-coke) Indlela ye-iron nail ayifanele i-sulfide ore equkethe ithusi eliningi, i-nickel, i-arsenic ne-antimony, kodwa ingasetshenziselwa kuphela i-medium galena (PbS) ne-sphalerite Umgomo oyisisekelo wamasampuli we (ZnS) futhi i-pyrite (FeS2) iwukusebenzisa insimbi eyinsimbi njenge-ejenti esusa i-sulfurizing ukubola i-sulfide kusampula, futhi yakhe i-FeS nge-sulfide, futhi isebenzise i-FeS noma i-Fe(Ⅱ)-Na- Uhlobo luka-S lungena ku-slag, futhi i-iron nail iphinde isebenze njenge-ejenti yokunciphisa, yehlise i-lead oxide ibe umthofu wensimbi, futhi ibambe izinsimbi eziyigugu. Uma isampula iqukethe ithusi, i-nickel, i-arsenic, i-antimony, i-bismuth nezinye izinsimbi ohlelweni lokunciphisa ngaphambi kwe-iron, insimbi izoncishiswa ibe yinsimbi, ifake inkinobho yokuhola, futhi yakhe i-alloy ngomthofu. Ngakho le ndlela ayiwafanele amasampula anjalo.

Umgomo wezithako zendlela ye-nail:

(1) I-asilicic acidity ye-slag encibilikisiwe ingu-0.5;

(2) Inani le-sodium carbonate liphindwe izikhathi ezingu-2 kuya kwezingu-3 inani lesampula;

(3) Isamba se-lead oxide singama-30 kuya ku-35 g;

(4) ) Inani le-borax elingeziwe lingu-1/2 kuya ku-1/3 yenani lesampula;

(5) Isamba sesampula singama-20 kuya ku-30g.


I-3.Indlela ye-Saltpetre iyindlela yokuhlanganisa yokucubungula amasampula ngamandla okunciphisa aqinile. I-oxidation ye-potassium nitrate isetshenziselwa ukwenza buthaka amandla okunciphisa kusampula, ukuze kutholwe inkinobho yokuhola enesisindo esifanele, ukuze umphumela wokuthatha izinsimbi eziyigugu ube muhle.

Umgomo wezithako wendlela ye-saltpeter:

(1) Amandla okunciphisa wesampula kufanele akalwe ngaphambi kokuba izithako zinqume inani le-potassium nitrate elingeziwe. I-Saltpeter akufanele ibe ngaphezu kwama-25g.

(2) Isamba esiphelele sezinto zokwenziwa ngemva kokuhlanganisa aweqi i-2/3 yevolumu ye-crucible, futhi kulula ukuchichima uma igcwele futhi incibilikiswa.

(3) I-asilic acid ye-slag encibilikisiwe idingeka ukuthi ibe ngu-10, futhi uma i-asidi inkulu kakhulu, kulula ukukhiqiza i-matte futhi ibangele ukulahlekelwa kwegolide nesiliva.

(4) Inani le-lead oxide elengeziwe liphindwe izikhathi ezingu-12 kuya kweziyi-14 inani lamandla okunciphisa esampula. Amandla okunciphisa ngaphezu kwama-30 izikhathi ezingu-12, futhi amandla okunciphisa ngaphansi kuka-30 izikhathi ezingu-14.

(5) Umthamo weborax awukho ngaphansi kuka-5g.

(6) Ukuze ubole ngokuphelele isulfure kusampula, engeza i-sodium carbonate okungenani ilingane nenani lesampula, bese wengeza i-1/4 yenani le-potassium nitrate.

Kuyadingeka ukusebenzisa indlela yokubala ukwenza izithako emsebenzini wokuhlola, kodwa emsebenzini wangempela, kuvame ukuba nzima ukwazi okuqukethwe kokwakheka kwesampula ethunyelwe, okudinga ukuthi sikukhombe ngokubheka iso kanye nesipiliyoni. Okokuqala bheka umbala kanye nekhwalithi yesampula, thola ukuthi iluphi uhlobo lwe-ore, bese unquma ukuthi iyiphi indlela yokuhlola ozoyisebenzisa.


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